Responsabilidad civil corporativa por violaciones del Derecho internacional consuetudinario. Nota sobre la sentencia del Tribunal Supremo de Canadá en el caso Nevsun

Corporate civil liability for violations of customary International law. A case note on the Supreme Court of Canada decision in Nevsun

DOI: 10.17103/reei.40.14

Jaime José Hurtado Cola

Resumen

En sentencia dictada en febrero de 2020 en el caso Nevsun c. Araya el Tribunal Supremo de Canadá abre la puerta a reclamaciones civiles contra empresas privadas en tribunales canadienses por daños sufridos por individuos a consecuencia de violaciones del derecho internacional consuetudinario presuntamente acaecidas en el extranjero. La sentencia repasa y analiza en profundidad el derecho canadiense y anglosajón en relación con problemas jurídicos tan fundamentales y controvertidos como la inmunidad estatal, la doctrina del act of state, la incorporación al ordenamiento interno del derecho internacional consuetudinario, la aplicabilidad directa a actores privados de normas de derecho internacional público, la competencia extraterritorial de los tribunales civiles, la división de poderes y la “justiciabilidad” (o exigibilidad) en foros domésticos de los actos soberanos de otros Estados, además de la responsabilidad empresarial por incumplimientos de normas de derecho internacional consuetudinario (incluyendo los preceptos internacionales sobre protección de derechos humanos).

Abstract

In its judgment rendered on February 2020 in the case of Nevsun v. Araya, the Supreme Court of Canada opens the door to civil claims for damages by individuals against corporations before Canadian courts for violations of customary international law allegedly occurred abroad. The opinion revisits and analyzes in depth the state of the Canadian common law with respect to fundamental and controversial legal issues such as state immunity, the act of state doctrine, the adoption of the customary international law into the domestic legal system, the direct application of norms of public international law to private actors, the extraterritorial jurisdiction of civil courts, the division of powers and justiciability in domestic courts of acts by sovereign states, as well as the corporate liability for violations of customary international law norms (including human rights international law).

Palabras clave

Derecho internacional de los derechos humanos – responsabilidad civil por violaciones de derecho internacional consuetudinario – doctrina del act of state - derecho transnacional – cuasidelitos transnacionales – jurisdicción civil universal

Keywords

International human rights law – civil liability for breaches of customary international law – the act of state doctrine – transnational law – transnational torts – universal civil jurisdiction

About the author/s

Jaime José Hurtado Cola

Abogado (Ilustre Colegio de Abogados de Madrid), Solicitor & Barrister-at-Law (Law Society of Ontario), Attorney-at-Law (Washington State Bar Association), Abogado/Dikigoros (Colegio de Abogados de Atenas)

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